The early history of these islands i.e. the history of Kala Pani is known since March 1789 when Lt.Archibald Blair (Later Captain) of Indian Navy was assigned the task to survey these island by East India Company. He later established a colony in Mark Island (Chatam Island) and Ross Island. It was then this island that is Port Blair was named as Port Cornwallis. However in 1796 due to unhealthy climate and high mortality rate this colony was shifted from the Port Cornvallis i.e Port Blair. The British finally annexed the islands in the 19th century adding them to their empire. They turned it into a penal colony for Indian freedom fighters. The construction of the infamous Cellular Jail was completed in 1908. Hundreds of anti-British Indians were tortured to death or simply executed here. With the Second World War, Japanese troops occupied the islands and the local tribes initiated guerrilla activities to drive them out. When India achieved independence in 1947, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands were incorporated into the Indian Union.
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